To Sleep or to Stay up Studying, That Is the Question

An Independent Project by Monika Nemcova ’19
Part 3 of 9

In my Spanish class, one of the girls summarized the universal student’s dilemma: we can either study, have a social life, or sleep – and as our time is not infinite, we manage to do only two of the three options. Well, most of us do not consider eliminating friends and becoming a hermit a viable life option. And at Andover, studying is really not optional – which leaves sleep as the least important activity. Nights thus become an endless reservoir of time which is spent either by writing that English essay or Snapchating with a well-meaning friend. For my whole year at PA, I have never met someone saying that getting a good night of sleep was their priority. Yet, as I try to argue in my series of posts about the importance of sleep, sleeping well is one of the biggest factors that influence our behavior and our performance in life. In this article, I would like to show you that the distinct choice between studying and sleeping does not exist – as the latter directly enables the former. In order to learn, the brain simply requires sleep.

When thinking about the role of sleep in learning, I remembered my dad’s childhood story that has never ceased to fascinate me. Back in the seventies, the Czech Republic still had a communist government, that made Russian a compulsory subject in all schools (as a nod to the USSR, which backed the regime). My dad, never one for learning languages, hated his Russian lessons with a passion. When he was in sixth grade, his Russian teacher insisted on learning long, lyric poetry by heart as a part of the curriculum. No one expected much of my dad. But he surprised everyone by a fluent recitation. He explained to me that he had found out that if he studied the poem straight before going to sleep, he then slept very poorly but dreamt about the poem. In the morning, he could recall it without problems. In fact, as he was telling me the story, he was still able to recite the poem, thirty years after.

The story of my dad might be an extreme case, but the relationship between dreaming about a task and improvement in that activity has been experimentally established [1]. In 2010, researchers taught two groups of people how to navigate a 3D maze. After the learning session, one of the groups went to sleep and the second one remained awake. In the napping group, the subjects who reported dreaming about things associated with the maze fared significantly better in the re-testing of the navigation. In contrast, no such distinction appeared in the awake group – the performance of the subjects was not affected by thinking about the maze. The researchers were careful not to generalize the findings as direct causation between dream experience and memory consolidation. Instead, they proposed that both the dreaming and the improvement of the task were the results of the processes of “memory reactivation and consolidation in sleep” [1]. So dreaming about the task would be just a side product of an efficiently learning brain.

However, that still does not explain how do these “processes” function, nor, for that matter, why was my dad’s learning technique effective only when he studied directly before going to bed. In order to understand that, we need to know a bit about how learning functions. The neurons in our brains are connected in intricate nets and pathways – one neuron always receives inputs from many others and based on the type and strength of the signal it receives, it either fires as well or stays silent. However, this system is not static. Both external (seeing a member of your tribe get eaten by a tiger because he was too loud) and internal (feeling pain after trying to touch fire) stimuli can affect the strength between the individual neurons. So in my first case, the connection between the neural pathway responsible for being stealthy and the pathway recognizing tiger territories strengthens. In the second case, the pathways for “great things to touch” and “fire” become less connected. It is not that easy but that is the basic principle. When the connection between two neurons strengthens, the neuroscientists say that long-term potentiation (LTP) has occurred. Weakening connection is called depotentiation. The last thing we need to know about learning is that the strengthening of the neural connections can be either short-term or long-term. A new experience evokes a short-term change, which, if it were left so, would disappear after four to six hours [2]. The brain needs to further strengthen the connection to make it last. And that is where sleep comes in.

connections
Figure 1. The connections and firing patterns of neurons are vital in learning (Retrieved from https://www.thegreatcoursesdaily.com/the-neuron-doctrine/)

Last remainder: LTP and depotentiation are chemical processes and as such depend on the brain’s own levels of chemicals, called neurotransmitters. I talked about neurotransmitters at length last time, so just a quick review relevant to learning. In REM sleep, the most prominent neurotransmitter is acetylcholine and the levels of other chemicals are low (for our context are important norepinephrine and serotonin). In NREM sleep, acetylcholine is low and both norepinephrine and serotonin occur at moderate to low levels. The neurotransmitters occurring in the brain in different sleep phases determine whatever and how the synapses can be strengthened [2].

REM Sleep

It has been experimentally established that when we learn something new, the proportion of REM in our overall sleep increases. This effect appears only when we actually learn and improve, not just all the time when we try to learn [2]. When we master that task, the amount of REM falls to normal [3]. That alone would be a good indicator that REM sleep somehow contributes to the learning process. However, there is also another proof in favor of that theory – the presence of the before-mentioned neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Acetylcholine makes the synapses (connections between neurons) especially plastic, which allows them to undergo either LTP or depotentiation [2].

LTP occurs when the neuron at the synapse fires in accordance with the general firing pattern of the brain – that EEG diagram pattern which I talked about last time (during REM, the firing pattern looks very much like the pattern of wakefulness). Depotentiation, a process as equally important for learning as LTP, is the result of a neuron firing in-between the pattern seen on the EEG. Also, depotentiation appears only in the absence of both norepinephrine and serotonin – which, again, makes the REM phase of sleep ideal for this process, as the levels of these neurotransmitters are at their lowest during REM [2, 3].

NREM Sleep

We have known for a long time that NREM sleep is also important for memory consolidation – the neurons which fired during the learning process were recorded firing again in the same order, albeit in an accelerated pattern (up to 300x). However, there is one obvious obstacle to proposing that NREM sleep also contributes to LTP – namely the absence of acetylcholine. Without acetylcholine, the short-term LTP potentiation, which happens during REM, cannot be initiated. However, it appears that NREM sleep allows the short-term LTP previously established during the REM phase to be consolidated into the more permanent long-term LTP. In favor of this hypothesis speaks the fact that protein synthesis necessary for long-term LTP notably accelerates during the NREM [2].

In addition, NREM sleep seems to contribute to depotentiation of the unused or even obstructive synapses [2].

sleepinggirl
Figure 2. Sleeping properly is key in the learning process (Retrieved from https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/08/180806104242.htm)

Now we can finally determine the real-life consequences of insufficient sleep. Because the REM phase is the only time when brain has high levels of acetylcholine and simultaneously low levels of other, obstructive neurotransmitters, it is the only time when LTP can be initiated fully. Experiments determined that subjects that were sleep deprived after a learning session showed no performance improvement following day [3]. That is one thing to consider – if we do not get enough REM sleep, learning simply does not occur. Going to sleep might thus be the most effective thing to do before a test, instead of trying to revise the material one more time. Also, subjects allowed to go to sleep immediately after a learning session had especially enhanced performance [3] – which probably explains my childhood mystery concerning my dad’s miraculous technique of poetry memorization. So I hope that the relationship between sleep and learning is less mysterious now (also, do not trust it when someone claims to learn something new while sleeping – it is a myth originating in faulty data analysis during the early twentieth century and as such was debunked in the 50’s [4]). Next time, I would like to focus on circadian rhythms and how do they affect both our sleep and our daily routines.

 

References

[1] Wamsley, E. J., Tucker, M., Payne, J. D., Benavides, J., & Stickgold, R. (2010). Dreaming of a Learning Task is Associated with Enhanced Sleep-Dependent Memory Consolidation. Current Biology, 20(9), 850-855. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2010.03.027

[2] Poe, G. R., Walsh, C. M., & Bjorness, T. E. (2010). Cognitive Neuroscience of Sleep. Progress in Brain Research, 185, 1-19. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-444-53702-7.00001-4

[3] Maquet, P. (2001). The Role of Sleep in Learning and Memory. Science, 294(5544), 1048-1052. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1062856

[4] Kang, S. (2018, October 28). Can you learn in your sleep? [Blog post]. Retrieved from Brainy Sundays website: https://scanberlin.com/2018/10/28/can-you-learn-in-your-sleep/

 

Neurobiology of Sleep

An Independent Project by Monika Nemcova ’19
Part 2 of 9

My first week of studying the mechanisms behind sleep revolved mainly around how different neurotransmitters create and affect the three basic states of the brain: wakefulness, REM sleep, and NREM sleep. But firstly, we should define what exactly these states mean. Neuroscientists recognize three standard, easy-to-measure characteristics that are used to define the brain states: EEG in the cortex, eye movement, and muscle tone. They are in the picture below. All of them measure electrical activity in certain areas. The first line, EEG, shows the activity of the brain. It is easy to spot the strange similarity between wakefulness and REM sleep in that first line: both have low voltage (seen as shorter marks on the graph) and high-frequency (the marks are close to each other) discharge patterns. It makes sense: dreaming, which happens during REM, often resembles our waking hours, so similar circuits are used to process it [1]. However, there is one interesting exception – our prefrontal cortex, active during wakefulness, is turned-off in the REM phase. The prefrontal cortex is the part of the brain that is responsible for decision making and behavior modulation. So, as it turns off during REM, in dreams we often do things that we would never, ever do awake [2].

 

REM Chart
Figure 1. Copied from Vazquez et al. J Neurosci 22:5597 – 5605, 2002

 

The second characteristic used to distinguish between the three brain states are the eye movements, noted as EOG in the picture. Eyes move the most when we are awake (even when we do not change their position conscientiously) and are still during NREM. During REM (which stands for rapid eye movement), they occasionally twitch under eyelids – that could be seen as irregularity on the otherwise flat graph [1].

The third line stands for muscle tone – how much does the body move; the less it moves, the lower the muscle tone. Quite obviously, the biggest is during wakefulness. After that, we are the most active in NREM – that is the phase when we move in the bed. Or, in the case of the less popular individuals for bed-sharing (such as myself), the phase when we steal all the pillows and kick any unfortunate person sleeping nearby. During REM, muscle activity is actively inhibited – probably as a preventive measure so that we could not act on our dreams [1].

While these three characteristics are useful in classifying the state the brain is in, it does not tell us what caused it to be so. As in many other cases in the body, the regulation of the sleep-wake cycle depends upon releasing site-specific chemicals, which, in turn, promote or inhibit the release of other chemicals. In the context of the brain, they are called neurotransmitters. Many neurotransmitters fulfill also other roles than only regulating sleep, so an average student has at least heard the name of many of them – serotonin, norepinephrine (also called noradrenaline), dopamine, acetylcholine, etc. When the electrical signal within a neuron is strong enough, it prompts the release of neurotransmitter – each neuron can do that only with one. So if the neuron releases serotonin, it is called serotonergic; if acetylcholine, cholinergic. The neurotransmitter then acts as a messenger between two neurons – the second neuron can fire more or less rapidly as the result of the chemical. It is important to note that naturally, the neurotransmitters occur only in the small space between two neurons.

 

neurotransmitters
Figure 2. How neurotransmitters allow the signal transduction between two neurons. Copied from https://www.doctorsbeyondmedicine.com/listings/neurotransmitters-and-your-health

 

That allows them to be site-specific. For example, one neurotransmitter called GABA is normally the chief promoter of NREM sleep. However, if it is released in a specific region of the brainstem called the pontine reticular formation, it inhibits REM and promotes wakefulness. When we take sleep medications (or any other drugs affecting the central neural system), our whole brain suddenly bathes in the neurotransmitters. That can account for some counter-intuitive results of some sleep medication. Most of the sleep drugs as well as the drugs used to induce general anesthesia work by promoting the effects of the beforementioned GABA. It works very well in most of the cases. However, in some patients, the drugs can promote GABA activity in the pontine reticular formation, which eliminates sleep. That is extremely unfortunate especially in children when instead of calming down before an operation, the stressed offspring becomes even more agitated [3].

The chemical cocktail of the brain is complicated but fairly well-understood. Studying sleep has the imminent advantage that it is an all-animal phenomenon, so a lot of studies could be accurately done using animal models. To simplify it, the three categories of brain states correspond with increased levels of certain neurotransmitters. The state of wakefulness is associated with high amounts of released monoamines – a group of chemical compounds where belong also serotonin and norepinephrine. They play a permissive role in sleep occurrence – it basically means that sleep can begin when their levels are low. Some anti-depressants, which work on the basis of increasing serotonin levels, can thus cause insomnia as a side effect [4]. Another important neurotransmitter is called acetylcholine. It occurs in the brain in high concentrations during both wakefulness and REM sleep. In fact, from the chemical point of view, the main difference between the REM sleep and wakefulness is the ratio of monoamines to acetylcholine. When we are awake, their levels are roughly similar. During REM sleep, the monoamines level plummet but the acetylcholine levels stay consistent [1]. I am saying levels – again, do not imagine brain bathing in acetylcholine; the neurotransmitters are released between two neurons and immediately recycled. The fact that the brain uses acetylcholine (and, therefore, the same circuits) in both wakefulness and REM sleep, again provides some rational basis why dreams resemble our waking reality so much.

As for the NREM phase – the traditional, if not a bit boring, sleep in which we spend the majority of our sleeping time, the main neurotransmitter there is the beforementioned GABA. However, I would like to talk mainly about another neurotransmitter associated with NREM sleep, adenosine. Adenosine, as in adenosine triphosphate,  is the breakdown product of the famous energy-storing molecule ATP. It is relevant to us because caffeine acts by blocking the receptors for this sleep-promoting neurotransmitter. As we are awake, increasing amounts of adenosine are released. It effectively determines the length of time we can be alert – as adenosine builds up, we become to feel tired. When we go to sleep, the adenosine levels gradually decrease – the more we sleep, the bigger the decrease. That is the biological basis why we feel more rested and alert after a night full of sleep. Caffeine blocks the adenosine receptors and thus keeps us awake [5, 1]. That is maybe something to think about – caffeine does not make us less tired, it just blocks our ability to recognize how tired we are.

So that is all from me about the neurobiology of learning. Next time, I would like to focus on circadian rhythms and something important for all students: the biological basis of learning and how is that affected by sleep.

 

References

[1] Brown, R. E., Basheer, R., McKenna, J. T., Strecker, R. E., & McCarley, R. W. (2012). Control of Sleep and Wakefulness. Physiological Review, 92(3), 1087-1187. https://doi.org/10.1152/physrev.00032.2011

[2] Baghdoyan, H. A. (n.d.). Historical Overview: Brainstem & Forebrain [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.coursera.org/learn/sleep/lecture/hRTfO/02-03-historical-overview-brainstem-forebrain

[3] Baghdoyan, H. A. (n.d.). Wake & REM: GABA [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.coursera.org/learn/sleep/lecture/bBMkF/02-06-wake-rem-gaba

[4] Baghdoyan, H. A. (n.d.). Wake & REM: Monoamines [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.coursera.org/learn/sleep/lecture/Vuu3a/02-04-wake-rem-monoamines

[5] Baghdoyan, H. A. (n.d.). NREM: Adenosine [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.coursera.org/learn/sleep/lecture/I0u9B/02-09-nrem-adenosine

Vazque, J., Lydic, R., & Baghdoyan, H. A. (2002). The Nitric Oxide Synthase InhibitorNG-Nitro-l-Arginine Increases Basal Forebrain Acetylcholine Release during Sleep and Wakefulness. Journal of Neuroscience, 22(13), 5597-5605. https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.22-13-05597.2002

Why Do All Animals Need to and How Do They Sleep

An Independent Project by Monika Nemcova ’19
Part 1 of 9

Even though sleep theoretically comprises a third of one’s life, an educated layperson knows basically nothing about it. I personally got through almost twelve years of rigorous formal education without getting to know more than that sleep is healthy (but why is it healthy I couldn’t tell) and that its amount per night should approach the magical number eight. I have, like everyone else at Andover, experimentally determined that if one doesn’t get enough of sleep, the next day feels like personal hell. Somewhere at the corners of my brain hovered information that there are two kinds of sleep – REM (as in “rapid eye movement” – that is when dreaming happens and eyes move rapidly below the eyelids – hence the name) and NREM (“non-rapid eye movement” – the peaceful slumber we don’t remember). This spring, I have decided to end this ignorance of mine and do an IP on sleep to finally understand this elusive phenomenon, which probably influences our day-to-day lives more anybody thought. Because I think that it is important that people know more about sleep, I will post here the weekly summaries of my readings, so everyone could see it.

Even though humanity has slept from its very beginnings, the study of sleep by itself is a very young field. Sleep came to the attention of the scientists in the early twentieth century when Sigmund Freud put forth that dreams contained messages about one’s suppressed desires and that they are crucial in unlocking one’s unconsciousness. While his claim is now generally regarded as pseudoscience (because it is impossible to prove or disprove it), it foreshadowed the efforts of future scientists to understand sleep. The breakthrough came in 1950 when a British physicist Robert Lawson during a long train ride noticed that the eyes of sleeping people were twitching under their eyelids [1]. He then spent the rest of the ride observing the sleeping passengers and the frequency of the rapid eye movements. Later, he wrote about this unorthodox experiment in a short letter to Nature [2]. A researcher at the University of Chicago, Nathaniel Kleitman and his graduate student Eugene Aserinsky decided to verify and quantify Lawson’s observations. In 1953, they proposed a relationship between the rapid eye motility observed during the sleep and dreaming, setting thus the now widely-known distinction between REM and NREM sleep. When they awoke sleeping people in the middle of their REM cycle, the vast majority of them was able to recall the dream they had or at least knew they were dreaming. In contrast, when they awoke subjects in the NREM phase, the overwhelming majority of the people could not remember their dream. Kleitman and Aserinsky also measured the interval between the individual REM phases and concluded that “An eye movement period first appears about 3 hr after going to sleep, recurs 2 hr later, and then emerges at somewhat closer intervals a third or fourth time shortly prior to awakening.” [3] When our sleeping cycle ends with the REM phase, we are able to recall the last dream. Their research also showed one of the reasons why it is so important to have a night of uninterrupted long sleep, as opposed to a few hours at night and a handful of naps – the REM phase starts only after several hours of sleep. The REM phase is crucial for learning and memory consolidation (I will discuss why is it so at some later point) [4].

 

SleepCircle
Figure 1. Copied from https://sleepcouncil.org.uk/how-much-sleep-do-we-need/

 

However, even after more than half a century of study, some aspects of sleep remain a mystery. For example, no one is sure why sleep evolved in the first place. Sleep seems like an evolutionary disadvantage – a period of time when an individual is vulnerable to the attacks of predators and cannot look for food or potential mates. Yet all animals sleep one way or another and mammals have the same sleep patterns as we do, complete with the REM and NREM phases. There must be a definitive evolutionary advantage of sleeping.

 

SleepTheories
Figure 2. Copied from https://backyardbrains.com/experiments/sleep#prettyPhoto/1/

 

Some propose that animals have evolved to eliminate the time spent by running around and being vulnerable to predators. Asleep, they are hidden, quiet and thus better protected. However, the counterargument presents itself very readily here – the individuals are less likely to escape the predators while asleep. Another theory proposes that sleep evolved to conserve energy – while we sleep, our metabolism, body temperature, and caloric demand all decrease [1]. That is, by the way, the reason why we do not even notice that we regularly do not eat up to ten hours because of sleep. If we don’t go to sleep, the body demand energy as usual – everyone has probably experienced gnawing hunger around two in the morning while desperately trying to finish an essay. Sleep also might have evolved as a time when the body could repair itself [1]. Personally, I have noticed that when I don’t sleep enough, my skin roughens, I’m more prone to acne, and I get sick easily. An important topic for students is also the role of sleep for memory consolidation [1]. We probably cannot determine a single reason why sleeping evolved but we can be sure that now it serves several different important functions and when we do not get enough of it, the body suffers greatly. Next week, I will focus on the neurobiology of sleep.

 

References

[1] Mar’i, J. (n.d.). Experiment: Sleep. Retrieved March 25, 2019, from https://backyardbrains.com/experiments/sleep

[2] Lawson, R. (1950). Blinking and Sleep. Nature, 165, 81-82. Retrieved from https://backyardbrains.com/experiments/files/Lawson-first-REM-1950.pdf

[3]   Aserinsky, E., & Kleitman, N. (1953). Regularly Occurring Periods of Eye Motility, and Concomitant Phenomena, During Sleep. Science, 118(3062), 273-274. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.118.3062.273

[4] What is REM Sleep? (2016, December 1). Retrieved March 25, 2019, from https://www.nichd.nih.gov/health/topics/sleep/conditioninfo/rem-sleep

The A-MAZE-ing Chicks…

Take On The Labyrinths of Room 103!

GUEST POST BY EMMA BROWN ’19

After a successful relay race last Monday— though some chicks were a tad distractible— Animal Behavior students have spent the past week studying associative learning and spatial cognition. This was achieved through two experiments: teaching our chicks to turn in a circle on command, and determining their learning abilities in the context of navigating a simple Y-maze.

Pictured below is Jan’s chick, Colonel Sanders, who was the only triumphant twirler in our class.

For the second experiment, my group constructed a Y-maze out of shoeboxes wherein one path from the fork would lead to food and freedom, and the other to a dead end. We tested the accuracy of Ferdi, Colonel Sanders, and a third chick over the course of five runs.

Our data depicted a significant decrease in time taken from Run 1 to Run 2 immediately followed by an outlier increase for all three birds in Run 3. Then, as the timing decreased for all birds aside from Ferdinand (who got distracted) in Runs 4 and 5 respectively, the data appeared to indicate that chicks can retain their learning of a Y-maze for a short amount of time, needing to “re-learn” the route before gaining any form of proficiency.

Unknown

Can’t Help Falling In Love With…

The Return of Animal Behavior!

Guest Post By EMMA BROWN ’19

Welcome to Animal Behavior 2018! After the eventful happenings of last Thursday evening, the arrival of baby chicks to dorms and homes was a much-appreciated change of scene. Below is a picture of my chick, Franz Ferdinand, who has a certain fondness for cuddling and attempting to roost in my hair. (Currently, as I type, Ferdi is making his best efforts to turn my attention away from my laptop by means of walking all over the keys.)

This weekend has been devoted to getting our chicks prepared for an obstacle course on Monday. This will test the strength of the filial imprinting process for each chick. At this age, chicks imprint almost immediately. After all, they’re just barely a few days old! As to provide a protective figure for them, it is important to bond with your chick early on. I have been doing this by feeding, cuddling, talking and singing to, and spending as much time with Ferdi as possible. Additionally, as chicks are attracted to the color red, I’ve been wearing solely red shirts for the past few days in true, traitorous Exonian form. (Love knows no bounds.)

Come back next week to see how my Elvis-ballad-loving chick performed for his debut race!

Schooled by the Fish

Animal Behavior Learns about Schooling of Fish

Guest Post by Carley Kukk ’19

This week in Animal behavior we researched the tendency of fish to school. Certain fish school, such as Silver Tail Rasboras, in order to protect themselves against predators. They truly embrace the idea of strength in numbers. In contrast, other fish, like red wag platys, do not school because their slow-moving bodies would not benefit from swimming in groups if a predator came along.

For our lab, Dr. Bailey asked us to come up with a procedure that could identify schooling in fish. My group and I decided to insert a piece of plastic with a hole into a tank with two different amounts of fish on each side. We would time how long it takes for all of the fish to reunite (or swim through the hole and form a school). Our fish, the red wag platys, are non-schoolers, so they didn’t mind the separation from their peers or didn’t reunite.

After we completed our own procedure, Dr. Bailey gave us her own version to test. We drew lines on the outside of the glass fish tank indicating sections 1-4. We separated all of the fish except one into a separate bowl next the side of the tank with a barrier so they couldn’t see the lone fish. After 3 minutes of allowing the lone fish to relax after his separation, we removed the barrier and tracked which section the lone fish remained in. If he was in section 1, closest to the other fish, for the entire 10 minutes, schooling occurred. Yet the red wag platys distributed themselves evenly across the sections, indicating no sign of schooling.

Ultimately, Dr. Bailey’s procedure was more effective in determining whether schooling occurred, yet the lab was extremely interesting and the fish, especially the red wag platys, were/are super cute!

Squirrels and Crayfish!

Animal Behavior Learns About Foraging and Territoriality

Guest Post by Carley Kukk ’19

The last two weeks of animal behavior have been pretty busy with learning about foraging behaviors and territoriality. To explore foraging behaviors, we utilized an abundant resource on campus: squirrels!

Eastern_Grey_Squirrel_in_St_James's_Park,_London_-_Nov_2006_edit

We set up a station next to multiple trees around campus with 4 piles of peanuts. Two piles were 2m from the tree while the others were 6m. One pile at a certain distance had unshelled peanuts and the other shelled. During our double block, we observed squirrel activity. Although we weren’t so lucky in sighting any squirrels (weird, right?), we learned the typical trend for this activity. Unshelled peanuts closer to the tree are a more popular choice because unshelled peanuts require less handling time (aka: less energy) and they are closer to a tree where a squirrel is safe from predators.

In another experiment performed this previous week, we tested the theory that residents are more likely to dominate intruders in a battle over territory. We placed a crayfish (who is extremely territorial) in a tank overnight to establish it’s dominance over the territory.

IMG_0763

The next morning we added an intruder crayfish: one larger and one of the same size. The resident crayfish usually dominated an intruder of the same size, yet was defeated by an intruder of a larger size.

IMG_0762

Like a Chick in a Maze

Animal Behavior Continues Working with Chicks

Guest Post by Carley Kukk ’19

During our last week with the chicks, we focused on teaching them how to get through a maze using associative learning. We constructed a simple Y maze with leftover shoeboxes and placed a small pile of food at the end.

Picture1

The food acted as a positive reinforcement if the chicks successfully completed the maze. Hopefully, they would later associate the correct end of the maze with the food.

In our experiment, we used 2 chicks to strengthen our data. Each chick surprisingly ran their fastest time through the maze on their first try. This was probably a fluke as later proved in the data where the chicks always explored the other end of the maze before completing it.

Eventually it took around 30 seconds each to complete the maze. There were in total around 7 trials for each chick. They finally began to associate the ending with food and ultimately learned through operate conditioning the correct way to complete our y-maze.

Welcome Back!

Another Year, Another Great Set of Blog Posts!

Welcome back to Andover! I am sure for a lot of you, it has been a great summer, but it is time to get back into the swing of things!

We have a lot of great things planned for you this year! Be sure to check out one (or more!) of our amazing Science classes this year!

If you are enjoying your Science class or have a Science-related independent project and would like to write one (or more!) blog post – let Ms. Andersen know at randersen@andover.edu! It can even count as your work duty… (!!!!!)

Have a great year!

Mornings with MAC – Retirement Edition

Get to know the retiring Science Faculty with this week’s Mornings with MAC!

Guest Post by Michael Codrington ’18

Mornings with MAC logoLadies and gentlemen, you must’ve had a lonely Wednesday morning last week without Mornings with MAC and I apologize for that. However, we have an exciting retiring faculty Morning with MAC. I was able to interview 3 Andover greats, Dr. Stern, Mr. Cone and Dr. Watt. With a combined 96 total years of teaching (16+51+29), it’s safe to say they’re veterans of PA. First up is Dr. Stern. Stern taught me for a total of 5.5 weeks when I thought that Chemistry 300 was the way to go. 300 had other plans… So, I eventually dropped down to 250. But, I will always remember Stern for his Charisma and willingness to help.

FA 3221764 Stern, DavidMC: What do you teach at Andover?
DS: Chemistry 250, 300, 550, and IPs. It’s been varied, but I enjoy it.

MC: How long have you been working at Andover?
DS: I’ve been here for 16 years. Day 1 was a very famous day – 9/11/2001.

MC: Really?
DS: Absolutely, it was my first day at Andover, ever teaching in a high school. I taught very briefly in a Bronx high school for a couple of months, but that was temporary. The all school meeting was on that first day of class. It was a beautiful Tuesday. The seniors were yelling 02, 02, 02!

MC: What brought you here?
DS: Before I was at Andover, I was selling high quality chemistry instruments, Spectrometers. It was about a 20,000 dollar instrument and I sold to Temba Macabela. He taught the organic chemistry class and organic chemists love this thing called Infrared Spectrometers.

MC: Where did you go to college? What did you study?
DS: I went to Lafayette College in Pennsylvania and got a bachelor of science degree. I could’ve gotten a bachelor of arts and taken different courses, more english and history courses. But the bachelor of science degree meant I had to take more physics and chemistry. It was very rigorous. Then I went to grad school and got a PhD in Analytical Chemistry.

MC: What is your favorite thing about Andover?
DS: The energy of the students. Every September, I would see new faces and new students and meeting them the first couple of weeks, slowly learning names and 9th grade boys soccer. Haha, That was a fun experience.

MC: If you weren’t studying/teaching chemistry, what other discipline would you be in?
DS: Probably math. I love math, I love plane geometry. I could teach you some algebra, not like these Phillips guys, but I know a decent amount. I loved how it was a puzzle. You figure it out with all your information. It’s great.

MC: What’s your favorite movie?
DS: I’ve got a lot of favorites, you wouldn’t know ’em though, so I love “Casablanca”. “Saturday Night Fever”, took place in Brooklyn about the New York scene. I love the James Bond movies of course. “12 Angry Men”, took place in the Bronx, about a big court case and really shows the prejudices from the time and that are still there in the Bronx. I don’t know I could watch a movie yesterday and forget the name.Cod and Stern

MC: Do you consider yourself an easy or hard teacher?
DS: Grade-wise I’m fair but hard. I could use a pun, I’m very stern…
MC: …
DS and MC: Hahahaha!
DS: But yeah, I grade a little difficult, but I understand that I’m teaching high school kids college chemistry and it blows my mind when I see one of them in a theater production or something like that.

MC: What’s one thing that a lot of people don’t know about you?
DS: They don’t know that I love to dance and rock and roll and that my favorite rock and roll band is The Stones.

Next on the roster is Mr. Cone. Cone boasts 51 total years of Andover teaching experience, having been able to both teach and teach alongside many Andover alums like Ms. Elliott ‘94, Mr. Ventre ‘71, and fellow science teacher Mr. Faulk ‘00.

FA 3046736 Cone, ThomasMC: How long have you been working at Andover and what do you teach?
TC: I’ve been here 51 years.

MC: Wow, that’s a really long time.
TC: Hahaha! I’ve taught first year Biology for many years, the name keeps changing. I’ve taught AP level Bio, I’ve taught Biology 500. I’ve taught term-contained courses. The last 20 plus years I’ve taught term contained courses for seniors, mostly. Animal Behavior in the fall, Microbiology in the winter and Ornithology in the spring.

MC: What brought you here?
TC: Well, I was overseas in the Peace Corps and my father was retiring from the Navy, he was a doctor at Harvard, and since I was coming back from the Corps, I wanted to live somewhere in New England and I applied to teach at a bunch of these New England Preparatory Schools.

MC: Where did you go to college? What did you study?
TC: I went to Trinity College in Hartford and I majored in Biology and minored in Education.

MC: What is your favorite thing about Andover?
TC: Wonderful student body. It’s always exciting, active, interesting students. Science faculty has always been superb. A beauty of a school like this is you have a number of teachers in the same department.

MC: If you weren’t studying/teaching biology, what other discipline would you be in?
TC: I enjoy history a lot, I think it would probably be the history department.

MC: What’s your favorite movie?
TC: Uh.. a recent movie or?

MC: It’s up to you I don’t really know, haha!
TC: My favorite movie when I was a kid growing up was “High Noon” with Gary Cooper – 1951. Also loved “African Queen” with Humphrey Bogart.

MC: Do you consider yourself an easy or hard teacher?
TC: I’d say somewhere in the middle. Students do what I ask them to do and they’ll do well. If they take good notes they should be fine. I want them to do well, that’s the point of a teacher. It’s like being a coach. When my students took APs, I wish I was in there with ’em, I mean I obviously couldn’t be, but I wish I could.cod-and-cone.jpg

MC: What’s one thing that a lot of people don’t know about you?
TC: Don’t know about me? When you say a lot of people you mean like you or like…

MC: Yeah, I mean uhh.. Like.. I don’t know… 
TC: Hahaha, it’s ok. Well in class, we joked about having animals and I had a black mamba as a pet. There was this long black snake in Liberia that was my favorite.

MC: That’s insane.
TC: It was a party, haha!

MC: Thank you, Mr. Cone it was great to meet you.
TC: You too, have a good one.

Last on the roster is Dr. Watt. I learn physics in the classroom next to Watt everyday during 4th period, but I have never really met him before. I immediately regretted that because he is hilarious. I sat down with Watt in his office at Gelb 222.

FA 3036992 Watt, J. PeterMC: How long have you been working at Andover and what do you teach?
DW: Physics and Geology. 29 years, which is nothing compared to Mr. Cone.

MC: Where did you go to college? What did you study? What brought you to Andover?
DW: I went to college in a place called Dalhousie in Canada, I got my bachelors and masters in Physics. I got my PhD at Harvard. Then I was a research fellow at the University of Colorado for a year then I was a research fellow at the seismological lab at CalTech for a year. I was trying to raise research funds for graduate students and it was hard for me to raise money and do science, so I decided why not come to some place with great teachers and great students.

MC: What is your favorite thing about Andover?
DW: The enthusiasm of the students.

MC: Favorite song?
DW: Nothing. Oh dear, I’ve got nothing, next one.

MC: If you weren’t studying/teaching biology, what other discipline would you be in?
DW: Likely Mathematics.cod-and-watt.jpg

MC: What’s your favorite movie?
DW: Harold and Maude

MC: Do you consider yourself an easy or hard teacher?
DW: Yes

MC: Hahaha! What?
DW: Haha! I try to cover the material, but I also try and be sympathetic of the students because I know they have a lot going on and it’s hard so I’d have to say I’m reasonable.

MC: What’s one thing that a lot of people don’t know about you?
DW: I’m from Canada.

That concludes Mornings with MAC for the 2016-2017 academic year. It’s been real and you can look out for a new edition coming in the fall of 2017. Have a great summer!